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Europe
 

Albania

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro
Population: 3,581,655 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Albanian (official - derived from Tosk dialect), Greek, Vlach, Romani, Slavic dialects

Andorra

Location: Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain
Population: 71,201 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese

Armenia

Location: Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey
Population: 2,976,372 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Armenian 97.7%, Yezidi 1%, Russian 0.9%, other 0.4% (2001 census)

Austria

Location: Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia
Population: 8,192,880 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: German (official nationwide), Slovene (official in Carinthia), Croatian (official in Burgenland), Hungarian (official in Burgenland)

Azerbaijan

Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range
Population: 7,961,619 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Azerbaijani (Azeri) 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995 est.)

Belarus

Location: Eastern Europe, east of Poland
Population: 10,293,011 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Belarusian, Russian, other

Belgium

Location: Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between France and the Netherlands
Population: 10,379,067 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Dutch (official) 60%, French (official) 40%, German (official) less than 1%, legally bilingual (Dutch and French)

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia
Population: 4,498,976 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian

Bulgaria

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and Turkey
Population: 7,385,367 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Bulgarian 84.5%, Turkish 9.6%, Roma 4.1%, other and unspecified 1.8% (2001 census)

Croatia

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia
Population: 4,494,749 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Croatian 96.1%, Serbian 1%, other and undesignated 2.9% (including Italian, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and German) (2001 census)

Czech Republic

Location: Central Europe, southeast of Germany
Population: 10,235,455 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Czech

Denmark

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, on a peninsula north of Germany (Jutland); also includes two major islands (Sjaelland and Fyn)
Population: 5,450,661 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Inuit dialect), German (small minority)
note: English is the predominant second language

Estonia

Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia
Population: 1,324,333 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Estonian (official) 67.3%, Russian 29.7%, other 2.3%, unknown 0.7% (2000 census)

Faroe Islands

Location: Northern Europe, island group between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Iceland to Norway
Population: 47,246 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish

Finland

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia
Population: 5,231,372 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Finnish 92% (official), Swedish 5.6% (official), other 2.4% (small Sami- and Russian-speaking minorities) (2003)

France

Location: Western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English Channel, between Belgium and Spain, southeast of the UK; bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain
Population: 60,876,136 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish)

Georgia

Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia
Population: 4,661,473 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, other 7%
note: Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia

Germany

Location: Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark
Population: 82,422,299 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: German

Gibraltar

Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southern coast of Spain
Population: 27,928 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese

Greece

Location: Southern Europe, bordering the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea, between Albania and Turkey
Population: 10,688,058 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Greek 99% (official), English, French

Hungary

Location: Central Europe, northwest of Romania
Population: 9,981,334 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Hungarian 93.6%, other or unspecified 6.4% (2001 census)

Iceland

Location: Northern Europe, island between the Greenland Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northwest of the UK
Population: 299,388 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Icelandic, English, Nordic languages, German widely spoken

Ireland

Location: Western Europe, occupying five-sixths of the island of Ireland in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Great Britain
Population: 4,062,235 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: English (official) is the language generally used, Irish (official) (Gaelic or Gaeilge) spoken mainly in areas located along the western seaboard

Italy

Location: Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia
Population: 58,133,509 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Italian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)

Jersey

Location: Western Europe, island in the English Channel, northwest of France
Population: 91,084 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: English 94.5% (official), Portuguese 4.6%, other 0.9% (2001 census)

Kazakhstan

Location: Central Asia, northwest of China; a small portion west of the Ural River in eastern-most Europe
Population: 15,233,244 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Kazakh (Qazaq, state language) 64.4%, Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the "language of interethnic communication") 95% (2001 est.)

Latvia

Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Estonia and Lithuania
Population: 2,274,735 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Latvian (official) 58.2%, Russian 37.5%, Lithuanian and other 4.3% (2000 census)

Liechtenstein

Location: Central Europe, between Austria and Switzerland
Population: 33,987 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: German (official), Alemannic dialect

Lithuania

Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia
Population: 3,585,906 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Lithuanian (official) 82%, Russian 8%, Polish 5.6%, other and unspecified 4.4% (2001 census)

Luxembourg

Location: Western Europe, between France and Germany
Population: 474,413 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Luxembourgish (national language), German (administrative language), French (administrative language)

Macedonia

Location: Southeastern Europe, north of Greece
Population: 2,050,554 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Macedonian 66.5%, Albanian 25.1%, Turkish 3.5%, Roma 1.9%, Serbian 1.2%, other 1.8% (2002 census)

Malta

Location: Southern Europe, islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Sicily (Italy)
Population: 400,214 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Maltese (official), English (official)

Moldova

Location: Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania
Population: 4,466,706 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)

Monaco

Location: Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea on the southern coast of France, near the border with Italy
Population: 32,543 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque

Montenegro

Location: Southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia
Population: 630,548 (2004)
Languages: Serbian (Ijekavian dialect - official)

Norway

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden
Population: 4,610,820 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Bokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities; note - Sami is official in six municipalities

Poland

Location: Central Europe, east of Germany
Population: 38,536,869 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Polish 97.8%, other and unspecified 2.2% (2002 census)

Portugal

Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain
Population: 10,605,870 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official - but locally used)

Romania

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
Population: 22,303,552 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Romanian (official), Hungarian, German

Russia

Location: Northern Asia (the area west of the Urals is considered part of Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean
Population: 142,893,540 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Russian, many minority languages

San Marino

Location: Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy
Population: 29,251 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Italian

Serbia

Location: Southeastern Europe, between Macedonia and Hungary
Population: 9,396,411 (2002 census)
Languages: Serbian (official nationwide); Romanian, Hungarian, Slovak, Ukrainian, and Croatian (all official in Vojvodina); Albanian (official in Kosovo)

Slovakia

Location: Central Europe, south of Poland
Population: 5,439,448 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Slovak (official) 83.9%, Hungarian 10.7%, Roma 1.8%, Ukrainian 1%, other or unspecified 2.6% (2001 census)

Slovenia

Location: Central Europe, eastern Alps bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Austria and Croatia
Population: 2,010,347 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Slovenian 91.1%, Serbo-Croatian 4.5%, other or unspecified 4.4% (2002 census)

Spain

Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay, Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, and Pyrenees Mountains, southwest of France
Population: 40,397,842 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Castilian Spanish 74%, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2%; note - Castilian is the official language nationwide; the other languages are official regionally

Sweden

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway
Population: 9,016,596 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Swedish, small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities

Switzerland

Location: Central Europe, east of France, north of Italy
Population: 7,523,934 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: German (official) 63.7%, French (official) 20.4%, Italian (official) 6.5%, Serbo-Croatian 1.5%, Albanian 1.3%, Portuguese 1.2%, Spanish 1.1%, English 1%, Romansch 0.5%, other 2.8% (2000 census)
note: German, French, Italian, and Romansch are all national languages, but only the first three are official languages

The Netherlands

Location: Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between Belgium and Germany
Population: 16,491,461 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Dutch (official), Frisian (official)

Turkey

Location: Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria
Population: 70,413,958 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Dimli (or Zaza), Azeri, Kabardian
note: there is also a substantial Gagauz population in the Europe part of Turkey

Ukraine

Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland, Romania, and Moldova in the west and Russia in the east
Population: 46,710,816 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Ukrainian (official) 67%, Russian 24%, small Romanian-, Polish-, and Hungarian-speaking minorities

United Kingdom

Location: Western Europe, islands including the northern one-sixth of the island of Ireland between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea, northwest of France
Population: 60,609,153 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: English, Welsh (about 26% of the population of Wales), Scottish form of Gaelic (about 60,000 in Scotland)

Vatican City

Location: Southern Europe, an enclave of Rome (Italy)
Population: 932 (July 2006 est.)
Languages: Italian, Latin, French, various other languages
Largest cities in Europe
 
Barcelona
Berlin
Birmingham
Bucharest
Budapest
Copenhagen
Hamburg
Katowice
Kiev
Lisbon
London
Madrid
Manchester
Milano
München
Naples
Paris
Rome
Stuttgart
Warsaw
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