Equatorial Guinea, officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea, is a country in West Middle Africa, one of the smallest in continental Africa. It is bordered by Cameroon on the north, Gabon on the south and east, and the Gulf of Guinea on the west, where the islands of São Tomé and Príncipe lie to its southwest. Formerly the Spanish colony of Spanish Guinea, the country's territory (continentally known as Río Muni) includes a number of islands, including the sizable island of Bioko where the capital, Malabo (formerly Santa Isabel), is located. Its post-independence name is suggestive of its location near both the equator and the Gulf of Guinea. It is the only country in mainland Africa where Spanish is an official language, excluding the Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, and the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.
Equatorial Guinea is the smallest country, in terms of population, in continental Africa (Seychelles and São Tomé and Príncipe are smaller). It is also the smallest United Nations member from continental Africa, and the smallest Spanish-speaking country in the world. The discovery of sizeable oil reserves changed the history of the country in recent years.
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